Russ Harvey Consulting - Computer and Internet Services

Security Software

Antivirus, Antimalware, Firewall, Spam Protection

Software | Hoaxes | Fixing Issues | Evaluating Solutions | Current Alerts

Protecting your computer from viruses, spyware and other threats

Changing Requirements

At one time an antivirus program was sufficient to protect your computer from the annoying (and often destructive) "bugs" that attacked your computer.

Blended Threats

Today, viruses are blended with multi-faceted and simultaneous threats, making them much more dangerous and resulting in serious implications for your personal privacy as well as for your finances if you aren't fully protected.

Ransomware Encrypts Your Stuff

Ransomware is probably the greatest threat today because it encrypts the entire computer, making your documents (financial data, letters, lists, etc.) photos, multimedia files and everything else inaccessible without paying a ransom.

Always Update Your Software

Your software and operating system can also add to your vulnerability. Upgrade or remove obsolete or unsupported software. Install recommended updates and service packs. The latest service pack is often a prerequisite for security software because it helps them keep you safe.

You Need a Security Suite

Your computer must be protected by a current security suite that includes antivirus, anti-spyware, keylogger / screengrabber protection plus an effective advanced two-way firewall.

Free Versions Available

Ensure your protection is always current. You have no excuse for not running security software. Many vendors offer FREE versions of their security software for personal use.

Recovery Can Be Expensive

However, remember the time and money you've put into your computer and software (never mind your data). It can be much more expensive to recover from an infection than to simply purchase decent security software in the first place.

Ransomware Protection

Most current antivirus programs provide some protection against ransomware but this is different than other malware and a failure could be catastrophic.

Several provide tools that can help recover files if you send them a copy of an encrypted file with the unencrypted original to help determine the correct recovery tool.

What About the Mac?

The Mac has a reputation for being safe without an antivirus, but it is time to change that opinion. Count the number of Macs in Starbucks these days.

Apple devices have experienced a surge in popularity in recent years. According to IDC, the company now accounts for 13.5 percent of global smartphone shipments and 7.5 percent of global PC shipments. This increase in usage has not gone unnoticed by attackers. A rising number of threat actors have begun developing malware designed to infect devices running Mac OS X or iOS. — Symantec

You need to be running security (antivirus) software on your Mac.

Malware protection is particularly weak and we now have proof that Macs can get ransomware. Choose an effective program that doesn't significantly slow down the system. More…

What About Linux?

Like Macs, many Linux users are under the impression that they don't need antivirus protection. Again, it is time to change that opinion.

We are well into the 21st century, but it is astonishing how people can still believe that Linux-based operating systems are completely secure. Indeed, “Linux” and “security” are two words that you rarely see together. — Sophos

You need to be running security (antivirus) software on your Linux computer. doesn't yet test Linux security software for home users (it has a much higher profile in server software) but that time is coming.

You Need to Be Vigilant

Many threats, including ransomware, evolve rapidly and use zero-day vulnerabilities (weaknesses in software that are exploitable even before they are discovered).

Security software using virus signatures can only protect you against known threats. Newer or evolved threats are harder to detect so most security software depends more on detecting unusual or malicious activity (threat emulation) to prevent unknown threats from infecting your computer.

Prepare for Disaster

Be prepared for disaster before it happens. Backup your data regularly so you'll still have a copy of your data if you're infected. You'll lose what isn't backed up, particularly in the case of ransomware, so schedule accordingly.

Unhide “Known” File Extensions

Windows hides “known” file extensions by default. That means they are known to Windows, but many users don't know the risks they pose which can include files that can infect your computer.

Several file types (including .EXE, .SCR, .COM and .BAT) are not safe to open, especially when received as an email attachment.

If the default Microsoft file extensions are hidden, the file samplefile.txt.exe would be displayed as samplefile.txt. You may mistakenly think the file is a text file and safe to open. You'd be wrong (and probably spending money getting your computer repaired).

To unhide these extensions, click on Start ⇒ Control Panel ⇒ Appearance and Personalization ⇒ Folder Options then click on the View tab and de-select “Hide extensions for known file types.”

Disable Macros in MS Word

You should disable macros in MS Word by opening a Word document ⇒ Options ⇒ Trust Center ⇒ Trust Center Settings ⇒ Macro Settings then Disable all macros with notification. Word macros contained in an attached document in a spam email are commonly used to infect your computer.

Watch for Unusual Activity

You need to be vigilant and wary of what you download and install. Watch for unusual file activity. While you may not protect your own data, disconnecting from the Internet can protect other computers on your network, particularly if you share files between them.

Avoid risky behaviour.

Like any other piece of malware, common sense goes a long way. The critical thing is it's not going to install files by itself. You have to initiate some action. — Jason Glassberg
  • Be wary when opening email. Malware generally spreads though malicious email attachments (including JPG images, documents and ZIP files) leaving you susceptible to data loss and identity theft. See Trustwave's Tale of the Two Payloads as an example.
  • Links can be faked, especially in emails. Fake links (those that go elsewhere than what is indicated by the linked text) can be used in emails, websites or text messages. See how to tell fake links.
  • Be wary of recent or short-term domains and shortened links (often used in texts and on Twitter).
  • Watch what you post online. Information you post online, particularly in social media, can be use to personalize attempts to contact you.

Learning More

My pages on security basics, malware and phishing & identity protection have more information on how to better protect yourself.

Using Obsolete Windows Risky

Windows XP is at significantly higher risk for infection than a supported version of Windows. This is exasperated by the continued use of the obsolete Outlook Express and older versions of Internet Explorer.

Vista expired on April 11, 2017 and similar warnings now apply to Vista.

…XP PCs should not be used to constantly surf the Web or serve as an e-mail platform. Most of the malware finds its way into a Windows system via these pathways.

Here's another unanimous recommendation by the security vendors surveyed: Whenever there is an opportunity, the user ought to switch over to more recent Windows versions such as 7 or 8. — AV-TEST

In an October 2014 report, ComputerWorldUK noted:

Fifty-two percent of the [half-million] compromised computers were running Windows XP, a figure that is at once unsurprising -- considering that support for Windows XP, including patches, ended in April 2014, according to the report.

Most of those computers were running Internet Explorer, which is to be expected given both the size of the Internet Explorer install base and the number and variety of exploits available for this browser, the report said.

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Antivirus & Security Software

While you can purchase anti-virus & security packages in retail stores, these sites offer software at reduced rates, 24-hour access, instant updates, and on-line technical support.

Save Backups of Installation Software & Licenses

If you do purchase your software on-line, be sure to save a copy of the installation file(s) — preferably on removable media — so you can reinstall it if you need to repair it or suffer a catastrophic loss of your operating system.

Not All Products As Effective

Assessing and comparing security products is difficult. You're essentially taking a snapshot of a series of products at a single point in time. Some products will have just completed an update that places them at the top, yet those results could be different in a week or a month because change is the constant in a product class that deals with the ever changing world of malware and threats. tests -- click to see live results. tests (see graphic showing consumer products for November 2017) show significant variations in the ability of available security products to prevent infections:

  • green were automatically blocked;
  • yellow were user dependent; and
  • red were compromised.

These results vary by month as vendors update their products and fix issues. I strongly recommend checking the reviews of products suitable for your operating system:

Recommended Security Solutions

ZoneAlarm Extreme Security

I strongly recommend ZoneAlarm Extreme Security for complete security protection while protecting your privacy.

ZoneAlarm also provides a separate Anti-Ransomware service for a monthly fee. This is an additional protection on top of your primary security software, including ZoneAlarm Extreme Security.

Check Point ZoneAlarm Anti-Ransomware is the most effective ransomware-specific security tool we've seen. In testing, it showed complete success against all of our real-world samples. — PC Magazine

Recommended Alternatives

  • Kaspersky Antivirus is very highly rated, but I prefer the version licensed with ZoneAlarm for more complete protection.

Mac and Linux

The Mac and Linux have traditionally been safer than Windows for security, but this is no longer true.

Free Antivirus Solutions

I strongly recommend sticking with a paid subscription because it will offer more frequent updates, better security and your requests for help will always get priority over similar free products. Some free versions may not perform as well as you expect.

In its recent endurance test, which was carried out over a period of 6 months, AV-TEST tested 18 Internet security suites for their protection, performance and usability. The test shows: more than two-thirds of the protection packages can be recommended, but the best performance does cost some money. Paid software packages are also the most secure. — AV-TEST

The cost of repairs to your computer if a free product fails you will far exceed the cost of most security products. But if you can't afford it, there are basic (and sometimes excellent) free protection for home users.

ZoneAlarm Free Antivirus + Firewall

Free Antivirus + Firewall is an excellent free option for personal use but ZoneAlarm Extreme provides better protection and more coverage.

ZoneAlarm isn't compatible with any other security software except MS Windows Defender.

Recommended Alternatives

These solutions are recommended ONLY if combined with the ZoneAlarm Free Firewall (basic firewall only):

  • ClamWin Free Antivirus comes with an easy installer and open source code. However, there is no real-time scanner (you need to manually scan files for viruses) and no firewall.
  • AVG AntiVirus FREE provides excellent basic protection for home users with light requirements (not suitable for online banking or shopping).
  • Panda Free Antivirus has a very minimal footprint (free for home users and non-profit organizations) but is missing most of the features the paid product provides.

NOT Recommended

I don't recommend the following products.

Microsoft Security Essentials (a beefed-up Windows Defender) is free for individuals and small businesses with up to 10 PCs. Supported on Windows 7 and Vista only. Support could disappear at any time.

One of the most common questions we get asked at Tom's Guide is “Is Windows Defender good enough to protect my PC?”

The short answer is: Nope. The longer answer is: No, but it might be someday. — Tom's Guide

The internal protection solution from Windows, Defender, at 15.5 points finishes among the last products at the bottom of the table. — AV-TEST
Zero-day detection was mediocre, but the popular free antivirus program performed well at spotting malware…the product performs worse when compared with other free or paid offerings. — InfoWorld

Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 comes with an enhanced version of Windows Defender, but the outgoing firewall is turned off by default. Turning it on can overwhelm the casual user with constant alerts.

Other Antivirus Solutions

These may be excellent anti-virus solutions, but I have not tested them recently. Some require significant system resources (mainly RAM) to run and many have a firewall inferior to ZoneAlarm, my recommended firewall. More about evaluating solutions.

Free Products

Reviews on these products have been excellent, but I haven't reviewed them myself (at least not recently).

ISP-Provided Packages

Many ISPs (particularly those offering broadband services) now include anti-virus protection either included as a part of their regular services or for a fee.

Some ISPs activate it automatically, but most require some action on your part. This can be an excellent first line of defense, backed up by an installed anti-virus program (since not all viruses are spread by email).

However, many of the packages provided by ISPs to install on your computer (such as Shaw Secure) are very intensive users of system resources and are not necessarily the best products available.

Try my recommended solutions instead, particularly if you're a home user where some excellent free options are available to you.

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Beware of Fake Spyware-removers

Watch out for “ads” on websites that appear to "find" spyware on your system. They install a fake program, then offer to remove it if you purchase their product. Don't fall for these tactics. They are rip-offs or fakes.

The best defense is to keep your protection current and to know how your security software displays warnings.

  • Do NOT click links on websites running a simulated (but realistic-looking) “infection reports” on your computer. These can also appear on your desktop in a Windows dialogue box.
  • Internet Explorer much more vulnerable in allowing malware to install unasked. Don't use IE for browsing the Web.

You many also receive calls from telemarketers selling security software. The CRTC has some advice on dealing with these calls. I recommend that you simply hang up.

Most Email “Warnings” Are Illegitimate

You've received a message from a friend that suggests you forward it to everyone in your address book. What do you do? Don't forward it. Delete the message!

It doesn't matter what the content is. Any request to forward information to everyone is highly suspect when it is sent to a group of people. Others don't like junk mail any more than you do.

99.9% of these are hoaxes or some other form of malware. I suggest you stop and take a closer look at the message before taking any action. I'm appalled at how often people repeatedly forward these things without checking them out.

Hoaxes are Social "Viruses"

Hoaxes are social “viruses” that take advantage of our compassionate nature. Features like the following should trigger you to investigate further:

  • Any request to forward the message to everyone in your address book is almost certainly a hoax.
  • Hoaxes use emotional rather than factual approaches to lure you in (see an example).
  • Hoaxes depend on our concern for our computers (such as "virus" warnings) or greed (chain letters that pay big dividends) or compassion for others (such as saving a sick child).
  • Many cite "authority" sources, most of which never issue such warnings. If in doubt, check the authority's website for confirmation.

Avoid Spreading Ignorance

Fake news is at an all-time high. Facebook and others continue to publish an incredible amount of news that isn't based upon fact. People forward it out of ignorance (or perhaps with malicious intent to confuse others).

Begin with a simple Internet search for unique specifics in the message. This will give you information to test the legitimacy of any message.

  • Do not forward email "warnings." Most are false.
  • Check for accurate virus information from antivirus vendors.

Other Hoax Information Sites

You might also wish to check out:

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Fixing Issues with Antivirus Software

If your computer is infected with the DNS Changer, you probably can't get Internet access. Fix it or learn more.

Multiple Security Products can Conflict

If you're having issues with your security software, verify that there are no competing security products installed on your system.

Competing antivirus, anti-spyware and firewall programs can conflict with each other, leaving you vulnerable to infection by viruses, malware and other threats.

  • Microsoft's Windows Defender and Windows Firewall are generally either allowed or disabled by most security software.
  • McAfee Security Scan Plus (installed with Adobe Flash as an optional download) is not recommended but shouldn't conflict.

Finding Help

While there are some generic similarities between security products (they provide the same function), you'll need to see help specific to the program(s) you're running.

I suggest that you seek help on the support website for your product then try the support forum if you have no luck. Try searching for your specific problem, using an error message or similar search criteria.

Generic searches on the Web can be helpful, but you'll need to ensure that the suggestions don't get you into more trouble or land you on a malicious site.

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Evaluating Antivirus Solutions

Microsoft Security

Microsoft enables the Windows firewall by default and checks for the presence of a current antivirus solution and scans for malware with Windows Defender.

These provide a base-line protection but are insufficient on their own.

Use a Security Suite

A security suite that includes all the security protection is recommended rather than shopping for various components.

Assessing Antivirus Solutions

If you're looking at protecting an enterprise (not my expertise) you'd best look at a Managed Security Services Provider (MSSP) because they involve a different level of risk. Trustwave's MSSP Buyers Guide will help you evaluate solutions.

Consumers, including small businesses, can check out the evaluations found on reliable websites and magazines to evaluate antivirus and other security products.

Often one product will excel in one area but be weak elsewhere so be sure to include your specific needs into the evaluation process. Both the strengths and weaknesses of specific products can change over time so be sure to view a current assessment.

Don't trust blanket statements that say that the code is “military-grade” or “NSA-proof”; these mean nothing and give a strong warning that the creators are overconfident or unwilling to consider the possible failings in their product. — Electronic Frontier Foundation

False Positives

The number of false positives (safe files tagged as viruses) should be few or none. Most antivirus programs look for certain traits that are common to virus activity to detect unknown threats. Unfortunately, this can tag legitimate program files — obviously creating issues for the person depending upon the A/V program.

Some files that are legitimate in some cases (such as password hacking utilities for recovery specialists) are something that should not be on most people's computers and therefore not false positives.

Automatic Scans and Updates

Ensure that your security software will update automatically and provide for a scheduled scan to detect issues missed while running a realtime scanner (the one that checks files as they are opened).

Many people simply don't add protection and fail to ensure it is updated frequently (it is like not having health insurance or ignoring expired health insurance).

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Use Current Software

Install a current and effective security suite. Simply having an antivirus program is no longer sufficient.

  • Ensure that your antivirus, anti-spyware and firewall software work together: a security suite is recommended.
  • Upgrade your software when your vendor no longer offers updates.
  • I strongly recommend that you consider a complete new version rather than a subscription renewal for older software if the renewal doesn't update the base engine of the security program.

Regularly download and install security updates automatically.

  • Purchased software generally offers better protection, especially when threats are evolving quickly. Free software provides protection for those that truly cannot afford to purchase protection, but it often updates only once daily.
  • Even with automatic updates, it is a good idea to check manually. While automatic update keep up with the new virus and spyware definitions, they usually cannot install unattended program updates automatically since such installations may require restarting Windows.

Upgrade Obsolete Software

Older software can introduce vulnerabilities into your computer, particularly if it connects to the Internet.

Upgrade or uninstall software that becomes unsupported.

  • Don't run old versions of Windows or other operating systems.
  • Microsoft Office, Internet Explorer and similar programs are often tightly tied into Windows.
  • Because IE cannot be uninstalled, it should not be used. especially once support expires.

Older software can introduce vulnerabilities into your computer, particularly if it connects to the Internet.

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Current Alert Listings

Spectre/Meltdown | Ransomware | Server Vulnerabilities

Checking For Alerts

You can find current alert listings on the AVG, F-Secure, McAfee and Norton websites.

The AVG Treat Labs site also allows you to check if a website is safe.

If you think you might have triggered a virus on your computer view the screen shots of several virus infections.

Spectre and Meltdown

Meltdown and Spectre are a hardware vulnerability was discovered in early 2018 that affects virtually every computer and mobile device produced since 2011.

The security of pretty much every computer on the planet has just gotten a lot worse, and the only real solution -- which of course is not a solution -- is to throw them all away and buy new ones. — Bruce Schneier
Meltdown only affects Intel processors, while Spectre -- the more serious exploit -- affects processors from Intel, AMD, and ARM. — Tom's Hardware

Security Patches

The fixes significantly affect system performance and AMD restart issues.

[C]urrent estimates suggest anywhere from a 5%-30% decrease in overall software performance. — TrustWave


Holding Your Digital Life for Ransom

Ransomware is a form of malware that encrypts your most valuable data files (documents, music, photos) then demands a ransom for the encryption key.

Ransomware has evolved over time.

Computers are infected automatically, with viruses that spread over the internet. Payment is no more difficult than buying something online -- and payable in untraceable bitcoin -- with some ransomware makers offering tech support to those unsure of how to buy or transfer bitcoin. Customer service is important; people need to know they'll get their files back once they pay. — Bruce Schneier

IBM revealed that 70% of businesses infected with ransomware have paid the ransom. Individuals are much less likely to do so except for financial data (i.e. they abandoned their lost data).

The WannaCry ransomware was patched by Microsoft in advance of the attack (even for XP) yet there were disasters. In Europe one infection was released that looked like an update to a popular accounting software.

Many organizations can take a long time testing to ensure that a patch won't create issues in their networks, yet this sort of infection is evolving so quickly there is no longer that luxury.

People will often not account for the fact that attackers attempt to get in through the most vulnerable parts of their organisation, leaving them with a network composed of 99.9 percent super-hardened endpoints and one box running Windows XP. — SC Media

Vulnerable software (particularly unsupported Windows computers) can be the pathway in which other computers on your network are infected.

It Could Get Worse

The most recent release is called RedBoot, named because, when infected, your computer boots to a red screen with white text that tells you your files have been encrypted with instructions to email an address with your ransom payment.

This was the first of a wave of ransomware-as-a-service, a commercial product that will make it available to virtually anyone to use.

This ransomware can alter your master boot records, change partitions tables and encrypt files. That means it can do real damage to your machine. — TechRepublic

And the future of ransomware is even grimmer.

Manufacturers have been busy installing Internet-connected microcomputers in everything — baby monitors, cameras, cars, hospital equipment, smart TVs and much more.

Forbes predicts that by 2025, we'll have over 80 billion smart devices on the internet. Much of the embedded firmware running on these devices is insecure and highly vulnerable, leaving an indeterminate number of critical systems and data around the world at risk. — IoT for All

Security has not even been considered in the rapidly expanding list of products that form the Internet of Things and is probably not even possible to implement post-manufacturer.

It's only a matter of time before people get messages on their car screens saying that the engine has been disabled and it will cost $200 in bitcoin to turn it back on. Or a similar message on their phones about their Internet-enabled door lock: Pay $100 if you want to get into your house tonight. Or pay far more if they want their embedded heart defibrillator to keep working. — Bruce Schneier

Preparing for Recovery

Prevention isn't easy and the only reliable recovery is to wipe your hard drive and recover files via a RECENT secure offline backup (cloud-based storage can be infected).

The main thing is to avoid any risky behaviour and to prepare as best you can to recover.

Here's some keys to preparing your computer(s) and data for recovery:

  • Ensure that your computer(s) are fully patched as quickly as possible to avoid infection where possible.
  • Use secure passwords and change the default passwords for equipment like your router.
  • Create and maintain a regular complete backup of your critical data files (irreplaceable documents, photos, media downloads, etc.).
  • Use a USB-based hard drive not permanently connected to the computer, storing it in a secure location when not backing up or restoring files.
  • Regularly backup current (in-use) files on a thumb drive (removing the drive from the computer when backups aren't in process).
  • Be wary of clicking on attachments in emails without scanning them first. If the email is unexpected (e.g. a "notice" from FedEx) you should delete the email (FedEx likely didn't have your email address, only your phone number).
  • Avoid downloading or watching videos on unknown pages. Facebook is famous for obscuring the destination of links on their site and for fake news link. Don't go there.
  • Ensure that you don't allow people to use your computer unsupervised and particularly don't allow them to download and install software. This is especially true for your children.
  • If you must have a "guest" computer, keep it unconnected from your network and don't provide Administrator privileges to the account they're using.

Winning the War on Ransomware

See Trustwave's Winning the War on Ransomware infographic (below).

Winning the war on ransomware infographic from Trustwave -- click for larger image.

CryptoLocker Started it All

CryptoLocker, released in 2013, demanded a significant ransom fee in BitCoins payable within 72 hours or the encryption key (the file needed for recovery) is destroyed.

CryptoLocker spread through ad networks but ransomware can be spread via email or TOR networks.

New Variations

While the botnets distributing CryptoLocker have been stopped, it has since morphed into new variations such as CryptoWall, CoinVault, TorrentLocker and Cerber which don't respond to CryptoLocker solutions.

Bad Rabbit

Bad Rabbit appears to be moving ransomware into the low-rent district. Access to a Windows XP machine can be purchased for $3; a Windows 10 machine for $9. The initial 0.05 bitcoin ransom (approximately US$285) has a deadline after which the price goes up. The hacker regains over 30 times his investment on the first sale. Where's the incentive to go legit?

Locky Ransomware

The Locky Ransomware is a rapidly evolving ransomware that was initially distributed via infected emails with infected .doc “invoices” attached that included macros that initiated the download of the ransomware and encrypted your files but has also used fake updates for Adobe Flash to spread its payload.

Ransomware Resources

Server Vulnerabilities

Heartbleed, ShellShock & Poodle

2014 saw headlines about Heartbleed in April followed by ShellShock (or the “Bash Bug”) in September then Poodle in October.

Although these affect mostly servers (the computers that host websites and cloud services), we are all vulnerable because we use the services they provide.


The Heartbleed bug official site -- click to learn more.

Heartbleed is a widespread security bug that affects webservers (OpenSSL runs on 66% of the Web).

Until fixed, there was the potential for hackers to be able to obtain user names, passwords and credit card numbers that have previously been used on affected websites.

It's not enough for companies to simply patch the copy of OpenSSL — the software at the root of the Heartbleed bug. Companies must also revoke and reissue digital certificates for their Heartbleed-vulnerable sites. — Mashable

ShellShock (“Bash Bug”)

Named for the GNU Bash shell the biggest threat is to web servers, but many other devices that make up the Internet of Things could be more at risk and more difficult to patch.

ShellShock affects most versions of the Linux (see the CVE-2014-6271 listings) and UNIX operating systems, but also Mac OS X, which is based around UNIX.

Newer versions have been patched. If your version is older and unsupported (unpatched) you should update to a supported version immediately.

An attacker can exploit this issue to execute arbitrary code within the context of the affected application. Failed exploit attempts will result in a denial-of-service condition. — Security Focus

Linux, like Unix, is vulnerable and needs to be patched. Watch for notices and updates for the distribution you're running or see the CVE-2014-6271 listings.

Information may be in the user forums. If your version is older and unsupported (unpatched) you should update to a supported version immediately.


Poodle is a potential vulnerability discovered by Google which takes advantage of “legacy” support for an older (and vulnerable) security protocol by current servers and browsers.

By fooling the server into believing the newer TLS protocol is not available, forcing them to use SSL 3.0, even if a newer protocol is supported by that server.


A new malware program called Poweliks attempts to evade detection and analysis by running entirely from the system registry without creating files on disk, security researchers warn. — PC World

Difficult to Detect or Remove

Poweliks is malware that avoid detection by running completely in the Windows Registry — there are none of the usual files on the hard drive for your antivirus program to check for.

ZoneAlarm Extreme Security detects and blocks attachments infected with Poweliks and other similar malware via Threat Emulation if activated.

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Related Resources

Related resources on this site:

or check the resources index.

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Updated: July 13, 2018