Russ Harvey Consulting - Computer and Internet Services

Linux

Distributions | Security Notices | Software | Documentation
The Desktop Environment | Drivers | What is Linux?

Tux is the official mascot of the Linux kernel
[I]f you really want a desktop where you're in control, and not Microsoft or another cloud company, what you need is a conventional desktop Linux such as Mint 17.2. Windows is heading to the cloud and it won't be coming back. — Cloudy Weather

Linux is Everywhere

Linux has moved from obscurity. Linux Ubuntu and Linux Mint are now the third and fourth most popular home operating system installations (after Windows and Mac).

Linux Distributions

There are various versions of Linux that have been developed (generally referred to as distributions or distros) including Mint and Ubuntu (see other distributions).

Linux Mint

Download Linux Mint

From Freedom Came Elegance

Mint Recommended

Linux Mint makes a good choice for those who'd like a distro that isn't constantly trying to change the desktop computing paradigm, but don't want to use abandonware. Mint is actively developed and both of its homegrown desktops are excellent. — The Register

Windows users that cannot upgrade their computers or afford to purchase a newer version will find that Linux Mint is an excellent option — provided you don't need to run proprietary Windows software*. A suit of commonly-used software is included such as Firefox, Thunderbird, LibreOffice and VLC media player.

*Many Windows programs can be run under Linux using WINE. Be sure to read the FAQ before installing WINE.

Ubuntu

Download Ubuntu

Check out or download Ubuntu:

How And Why I Made The Switch From Vista To Linux is an excellent overview of Ubuntu, albeit somewhat dated.

Other Linux Distributions

Some of the better known distributions are:

Most Linux distributions show some screen shots so you can get an idea of what the desktop looks like but you can also run them from their installation media without installing them to test them out.

Finding Additional Distros

There are many other Linux distributions.

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Security Notices

Best Practices

These best practices will help ensure you're not running older Linux versions containing the vulnerabilities noted in this section:

  • Upgrade your version to the most recent version supported by your hardware. Most vulnerabilities are addressed in kernel updates (i.e. new versions of your Linux distribution).
  • When your hardware no longer supports the newest version of your distro (or if your distro no longer is being updated) you need to either upgrade your hardware or look to a version that supports your current hardware.

Run Security Software

You should be running security software.

While the percentage of home computers running Linux is very small (compared to the Windows or Linux server installation base) there are still vulnerabilities that have nothing to do with software (phishing, identity theft, and more).

KRACK

KRACK is a vulnerability in the WPA2 Wi-Fi protocol that affects virtually all Wi-Fi enabled devices.

Newer version of Mint and Ubuntu have been patched if you've installed the updates. Other distros may be vulnerable, especially older and unpatched ones.

3 Kernel Vulnerabilities

This section contains information about vulnerabilities to the Linux kernel.

Linux's decade-old flaw: Major distros move to patch serious kernel bug. Three other serious security holes were patched in December 2016.

Learn more: Three serious Linux kernel security holes patched.

Be sure to install the latest patches to ensure you're protected from these vulnerabilities.

Software Vulnerabilities

While Linux itself has more secure mechanisms than Windows, there is also software vulnerabilities.

The Linux encryption app Cryptkeeper has a rather stunning security bug: the single-character decryption key "p" decrypts everything. — Bruce Schneier

Older Vulnerabilities

The vulnerabilities listed here should only affect you if you're running an older version of Linux that hasn't been patched.

Linux Security Information

Check these sites for more information about Linux security.

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Linux Software

Much of the software used by the average person is either included with the installation of many distributions like Ubuntu and Mint or can be downloaded and installed using updating utilities built into those distributions.

A more extensive listing of Linux software can be found on the LinuxSoft.cz directory. If you're moving from Windows to Linux, the Linux software equivalent to Windows software should give you the Linux options for replacing a particular Windows program.

LibreOffice and Apache OpenOffice

Free Office Alternatives

LibreOffice Apache OpenOffice

LibreOffice and Apache OpenOffice provide the core features of Microsoft Office and both are free to download, use, and distribute. LibreOffice or Apache OpenOffice is installed by default on most Linux distros and both are open source (like Linux itself). More on the differences and history here.

System Requirements for Linux

LibreOffice runs on Windows, MacOSX, and Linux. Java is required for certain features of the software. The GNU/Linux requirements have been included below.

  • Linux kernel version 2.6.18 or higher.
  • glibc2 version 2.5 or higher.
  • gtk version 2.10.4 or higher.
  • Pentium-compatible PC (Pentium III, Athlon or more-recent system recommended).
  • 256Mb RAM (512Mb RAM recommended).
  • Up to 1.55Gb available hard disk space.
  • X Server with 1024x768 resolution (higher resolution recommended), with at least 256 colors.
  • Gnome 2.16 or higher, with the gail 1.8.6 and at-spi 1.7 packages (required for support for assistive technology [AT] tools), or another compatible GUI (such as KDE, among others).

Apache OpenOffice runs on many operating systems including Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. Java is required for certain features of the software. The GNU/Linux requirements have been included below.

  • Linux kernel version 2.6 or higher, glibc2 version 2.5 or higher.
  • Free memory of 256 MB RAM (512 MB recommended).
  • 400 MB available disk space.
  • X-Server with 1024 x 768 pixel or higher resolution with at least 256 colors (16.7 million colors recommended).

About the Java Requirements

Both LibreOffice and OpenOffice will run without Java for most users but certain features depend upon Java, particularly the database program.

Java is mainly required for the HSQLDB database engine (used by our database product Base) and to make use of accessibility and assistive technologies. — Apache OpenOffice

Java is known to make Windows insecure. Mac and Linux users now share that vulnerability by running Flash and Java.

Remove Java if you don't need it. If installed, be sure to frequently update it and to remove older versions.

Download Java. | Test your current Java installation. | Learn more about Java.

See Oracle's Java Downloads for All Operating Systems page for information specific to Linux.

Web Browsers

Email

Graphics

  • The amazingly-powerful GIMP graphics program is a worthy alternative to Photoshop.

Accounting Software

  • Manager is free cloud-based accounting software that runs on Windows, Mac and Linux — Ubuntu Oneiric (11.10) or newer. It includes modules such as cashbook, invoicing, receivables, payables, taxes and comprehensive financial reports. You'll need to create an account to use this program and your data will be stored in the “cloud” rather than on your computer.

Security Software

As Linux becomes more popular, it becomes the target of malicious attacks.

Games

FTP

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Linux Help and Documentation

Linux Information Sites

There are numerous sites on the Internet that provide an incredible amount of information. Don't forget to check the various newsgroups for messages that provide solutions to problems you are experiencing with Linux installation or your routine maintenance issues.

Linux Documentation

There are several sources of information about installing, configuring and administrating Linux. Besides the MAN (manual) pages that usually accompany your distribution you will find various HOWTOs or mini-tutorials on the Web.

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The Desktop Environment

The GUI

X Windows is the GUI (Graphic User Interface) for Linux. It is much more flexible than either the Windows or Macintosh environments because it is not the entire operating system. This makes X Windows very powerful and configurable. Most users will have all three components installed, but they are not all necessary for Linux to run.

X Servers

Providing the support for the video card and monitor and basic window management.

Window Managers

These provide the window controls, buttons, menus and control panels for Linux distributions.

Desktop Environments

What provides the common “look and feel” to the desktop.

The components that are available to you will depend upon the distribution you are using and the capabilities of your hardware. Because of the nature of Linux you can change the look of your distribution by changing the various components of the desktop environment.

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Drivers

Traditionally many hardware manufacturers have not provided drivers written for Linux for their current offerings. This means dependence on drivers provided by the Open Source community, and installation is not usually a matter of inserting a CD or floppy and hitting Enter.

This is gradually changing as manufacturers realize that commercial interest in Linux is increasing. Drivers are appearing more frequently as demand grows.

Printers Drivers

The one area where there has been the most demand for drivers (and the most improvement) is with printers.

HP Printers

HP Linux Imaging and Printing for HP's print, scan and fax drivers for Linux.

I found native support for my HP Color LaserJet CP1215 on Linux Mint 17 although it wasn't the most current version available.

Brother Printers

Brother provides excellent driver support for their printers. You'll need to read the installation documentation carefully (see the “Driver Install” links).

Start by downloading the CUPS and LPR drivers for your printer, review the Driver Install documentation then complete the installation according the Brother's instructions.

I installed a Brother HL-2240 in a 32-bit Linux Mint 15 installation and the process I followed may help you overcome any challenges in understanding Brother's documentation. I followed these steps using the Terminal window (command line), entering the commands as superuser (sudo*) starting in the directory where I'd downloaded the drivers to avoid issues.

  1. Purge CUPS to ensure it can be cleanly installed
    sudo apt-get remove --purge cups
  2. Install CUPS sudo apt-get install cups
  3. Checked for update status for the ia32-libs and lib32stdc++ libraries
    sudo apt-get install ia32-libs lib32stdc++6
  4. Install the LPR driver (forced install)
    sudo dpkg -i --force-all hl2240lpr-2.1.0-1.i386.deb
  5. Install the cups driver (forced install)
    sudo dpkg -i --force-all cupswrapperHL2240-2.0.4-2.i386.deb
  6. Check the installation
    sudo dpkg -l | grep Brother
    which should result in something like the following:
    # ii cupswrapperhl2240 2.0.4-2 Brother HL2240 CUPS wrapper driver
    # ii hl2240lpr 2.1.1-1 Brother HL-2240 LPR driver
  7. Check the CUPS web interface http://localhost:631/printers. The result should be:
    # printer was properly installed

*The superuser command for Linux Mint is sudo. This may not be true for other installations in which case you're replace sudo with the superuser command for your distribution. As well, other distributions may use the RPM installer instead of the DEB. You'll need to modify the commands accordingly.

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What is Linux?

Linux is a Unix derivative that has become more mainstream in the last few years. Linux is not that new, only the amount of attention it is getting is new.

The backbone of the Internet is built on Unix and one of the features of Linux is the ability to use low-cost or free server software to run your network or Internet server.

Linux is Open Source

The Open Source movement means that the source code for the operating system must be made available for any programs using previous Open Source program code.

Companies like Microsoft or Apple are closed systems that deny others the ability to modify their program source code.

Thousands of people around the world can work on problems, develop new hardware drivers, and create software applications for Linux.

The Cathedral and the Bazaar will give you a good insight to the advantages of the Open Source movement and how it is helping to shape Linux.

Linux has been acclaimed as the operating system that will someday replace Microsoft Windows as the standard operating system.

This is potentially true. Windows is harder to try out (try surfing the Web from a "virtual" Windows install booted from a CD like you can with Linux Mint) but it supports a massive number of commercial and shareware applications.

Check out these Novell ads on YouTube parodying the successful Mac v. PC ads.

Excellent Upgrade Path for Windows Users

If you're still running unsupported versions of Windows and cannot upgrade without purchasing a new computer, consider installing Linux instead.

Linux will run on most XP or better systems without having to download special drivers and Linux comes preinstalled with most of the software casual users require.

Early Netbooks Ran Linux

Windows users may have seen or even used Linux on early netbooks (miniaturized laptops) that came with Linux pre-installed on small solid state drives.

Replaced with Tablets

Netbooks have virtually disappeared as users purchase tablets running Apple's iOS or Google's Android.

Windows 8's Secure Boot Defeats Linux Installations

Users wanting to install Linux onto a preinstalled Windows 8 system will have difficulties because the new Windows uses UEFI instead of BIOS to enable the Secure Boot technology because the Linux installer is treated like a virus.

Linux Advantages

[I]f you really want your IT department to be in charge of your PCs and not Microsoft (or Apple, or Google with Chromebooks), it's time to start seriously considering the Linux option. There really are no other viable alternatives. — ComputerWorld

Linux offers many advantages to Microsoft Windows operating systems including the following:

  • Free fully functional downloads.
  • You can try Linux distributions by booting from the CD.
  • Linux is very stable operating system.
  • Security is excellent in Linux.
  • Linux is much quicker to respond to user demands for improvements and drivers.
  • Multiple distributions means that there is true competition.
  • You're invited to donate to keep the distribution(s) you use free.
  • Linux's modular design means you have a great deal of flexibility in your installation choices.
  • Security is built into Linux.

Other Resources

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Help Getting Started

If you would like some help installing Linux or getting your hardware peripherals to work with Linux please contact me.

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Related Resources

Related resources on this site:

or check the resources index.

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www.RussHarvey.bc.ca/resources/linux.html
Updated: November 16, 2017