Malware Detection & Removal
What is Malware?
Malware is software designed with malicious intent. It secretly gathers information about you (sometimes called spyware) or your private communications and attempts to gain access to restricted or secure systems. It then forwards this information to the malware's owner.
Malware often results in the slowing down of the computer, one indication that you're infected. Antivirus software cannot deal with malware unless it contains special anti-spyware/anti-malware components and maintains a current database of malware and how to remove it.
Potentially Unwanted Programs
Brand Name Computers with Bloatware
Some software that comes with name-brand computers is called Potentially Unwanted Programs (PUPs). While you've agreed to install these programs (accepted the computer vendor's license) in most cases you want to remove such programs as they are bloatware in the very least and likely a threat to your privacy or worse.
Addons to Free Software
PUPs such as McAfee Scan, Yahoo! Toolbar, Google Chrome, etc. can be installed along with downloaded free software. This is a method many developers use to “pay” for software they provide for free.
These programs can usually be deselected either prior to download or during the install. Rather than simply clicking through the various download and installation screens, ensure that you understand what you're actually installing. If you're unable to deselect the unwanted software you may not wish to install that program.
Malware is Profitable
Unlike viruses, malware is extremely profitable.
Stealthily redirecting hundreds to sites, they can take advantage of increased advertising rates for the ads on those sites because of increased, albeit unwarranted, traffic.
Security suites are strongly recommended because only such suites can deal with the multifaceted threats facing computer users today. Such suites should contain software for removing malware and spyware from your system and to protect you from future infections.
Ransomware is special form of malware which encrypts the files on your computer and holds it for ransom. Beginning with CryptoLocker and evolving from there, this class of malware cannot be recovered except by paying the ransom and hoping the thieves don't simply walk away with your money.
You can only hope to prevent ransomware infections. Recovery is seldom possible except by wiping the computer and restoring your data from (hopefully) recent backups.
I recommend ZoneAlarm Extreme Security.
Microsoft's Windows Defender provides decent (but not excellent) anti-malware protection (much better than its anti-virus protection). Most security products will work along side it.
Other Safe Solutions
However, running more than one alternative anti-malware product at a time may cause a conflict (they can fight each other rather than the malware).
I recommend the following stand-alone products and services to deal with malware infection, especially if you don't have a suite with built-in anti-malware protection:
- Malwarebytes Anti-Malware detects and removes worms, Trojans, rootkits, rogues, spyware, and other dangerous malware from your home PC.
- Malwarebytes Anti-Malware for Mac.
- Spybot Free Edition, available for private use, requires installation. Spybot — Search & Destroy 1.6 is recommended for recovery.
Beware of Fake Malware-removers
There is a disturbing trend of placing ads on websites that appear to “find” malware on your system. They offer to remove the infections if you purchase their product.
Don't fall for these tactics. Most, if not all, are rip-offs or fakes.
- Usually such displays include very large numbers of “infected” files. This is designed to scare you into immediate action before you have a chance to realize you're being scammed.
- Their placement is not always controlled by the site you've visited (many sites use external services to display ads) but their presence should deter you from visiting the site again (and certainly from purchasing anything there).
- If you buy the subscription, you're likely to get a call trying to up-sell you on other products (you've demonstrated that you're not savvy about what quality software looks like).
A similar tactic is to place prominent alternative Download buttons leading to malware and spyware software in addition to the less prominent one that links to the download you're seeking. You're best to download only from the developer's site where possible.
- Hovering over (NOT clicking on) any link in a browser should show the address it will take you to. Be wary of links that take you off-site or to mysterious domains. See How to Tell Fake Links to learn more about how website links work.
- You can search WHOIS records to determine who owns the site. Be wary of recent or short-term domains.
- How to avoid fake Download buttons provides more information.
Obtaining More Information About Malware Removal
Unfortunately, many of the resources formerly linked from this page are no longer maintained.
What is Spyware?
Spyware is ANY SOFTWARE which employs a user's Internet connection in the background (the so-called “backchannel”) without their knowledge or explicit permission. — Steve Gibson
The term “spyware” has been mostly replaced with the term “malware” and includes any program that has harmful or malevolent intent or purpose, even if it is disguised within an apparently useful program.
Your Personal Information For Sale
Internet companies, whose apparent “business model” is the exploitation of consumer trust and ignorance, are sneaking their spyware systems into our machines for their own purposes. —Steve Gibson
See Your Privacy At Risk for more.
Big Names Don't Necessarily Mean Safety
The extent of this secret information collection may shock you and is an attack on personal privacy.
Free email services like Gmail began the trend, followed by cell phone services. Unfortunately, privacy has all but disappeared as corporations seek to know anything and everything about all of us.
Uncle Sam Gets Involved
Edward Snowden revealed a huge spying network organized by the NSA and other U.S. government agencies (and their counterparts virtually everywhere on the planet) involving the largest ISPs and software companies. George Orwell must be rolling in his grave.
Company policies change and often do change. In many cases, short-term profits have proven to be more appealing than long-term loyalty to these companies.
Windows 10's New Revenue Model
Microsoft also used spyware-like tactics in forcing Windows 7 and 8 users to upgrade to Windows 10:
- Windows Update was used to install the GWX nagware which downloaded the files to the user's computer without permission.
- When it self-activated the Windows 10 upgrade, the program “interpreting” the user's closing of the offer with the red X to mean permission to install (the opposite of what it has meant on computers, including Windows systems, since the very beginning).
- To stop the upgrade you had to click next then decline the license agreement — hardly an intuitive process.
- Many users found themselves unexpectedly restarting their computers running Windows 10. In the case of one client, the update failed TWICE, requiring a clean install of Windows 7 because the computer could not recover from the uninvited upgrade.
- Microsoft also installed ads promoting Windows 10 as part of “security fixes” for Internet Explorer.
Many consultants recommended disabling Windows Update because Microsoft was deceptive in what was actually being installed (“updates to Windows”).
As a result of such tactics, I refused to upgrade to Windows 10 and recommended that my clients don't either.
Learn More About Spyware
- GRC Discussion Group for Spyware is a forum for discussion about spyware.
- The Ethics of Anonymous Surveillance for Profit displays one example of such information gathering.