Web Design Ethics
Protect Your Image on the Internet
There is more than simply “hanging out your shingle” to having a presence on the Web. You need to be sure that you are conveying the right message and that you are not taking shortcuts that will hurt your business's reputation.
This page is focuses primarily on websites and blogs, but the information is pertinent to most business owners.
It also is Canadian-based, so you'll want to determine any specialized rules for your country and the jurisdictions where you do business.
Growing Importance of E-commerce.
Many businesses have been forced to take their web presence seriously because of COVID-19, especially its e-commerce aspects.
There are several security concerns to consider when setting up your site:
- Ensure the site is encrypted with HTTPS. Let's Encrypt provides an economical option.
- Shopping carts and similar technologies take knowledge to set up securely.
- Avoid using legacy plugins and other insecure technologies.
Don't Be Labeled a Spammer
You don't want to become identified as a spammer (someone that sends out unsolicited email messages).
An email or phone call offering to “target market” addresses for your business is offering to spam others on your behalf. The consequences can be severe.
- Canadian anti-spam legislation (CASL) came into effect on July 1, 2014 and has administrative monetary penalties (AMPs) up to $1 million for an individual and $10 million for entities, such as corporations, per violation.
- Scott William Brewer was fined $75,000 for sending commercial emails without consent of the recipients.
- Legislation in California can find you liable for thousands of dollars in damages if even one of your spam emails is sent to a location within California (or any other location with similar legislation).
If you have a website and offer an emailed newsletter, update notices or other similar services, you will want to ensure that people are actually wanting your email.
This can take the form of a subscription option on your website or an invitation in an email response to a message originated by the other person.
Be certain that those on your mailing list truly wish to receive the material you're sending. This process is called opt-in.
Allowing Visitors to Choose
Allow your site visitors to choose to receive your emails (whether it is newsletters, special offers or promotional material) by having them check off the information they want. Don't use pre-checked boxes or other forms of “assumed” consent.
Then make it easy to unsubscribe if they change their mind.
Never “unsubscribe” from lists that you didn't subscribe to in the first place.
Even with explicit permission, I'd recommend confirming opt-in requests by sending a message to the new address asking them to confirm their intention to subscribe (and not using that address until it is confirmed).
- If you receive a reply, you know it is a legitimate request from someone that has access to that specific address. You can now add the address to your mailing list.
- If you receive no reply within a reasonable time period, don't add the address to your list.
Avoid Annoying Pop-ups
Many sites have pop-up subscribe now notices that appear as soon as the person scrolls the content they came to the site for. While this probably improves your enrollment rate, it is annoying and is unlikely to produce a quality prospect. I bet many folks just automatically mark your emails as “junk” when they arrive.
While it may be OK to send a single message to your whole family, you might want to check first.
- Not everyone wants to receive your pictures of Uncle Joe at the birthday party, particularly if they are on a lower-speed connection — and definitely not all of them.
- Everyone knows someone in the family that loves to gossip. The electronic version is just as annoying.
Don't Use “Opt-out”
An opt-out system is different from an opt-in one, in that the people who weren't paying attention will be doing whatever the thing was. Obviously opt-in is far more privacy-friendly.
— Jon Callas, EFF
Sneaky & Unethical
Marketing companies prefer the term “opt-out” — an attempt to sugar-coat junk mail (or spam). Shame on them!
The use of opt-out sends a strong message that your privacy isn't important.
“Opt-out” marketing, whether using pre-checked consent or adding users to your mailing list without their express permission, is unethical.
Pre-checking Boxes is NOT Consent
A number of companies use pre-checked boxes beside statements like,
I would like to be notified about product updates and information from our partners.
This “opt-out” practice resulted in an astounding 80% “assent” rate (compared an average of 0.1% response rate in traditional direct mail).
Of course, many victims complained about receiving spam from those lists.
That should have been a clue.
Illegal in Canada
This is an unethical “assumed-close” sales technique which is illegal in Canada.
By pre-checking the boxes they forced the user to take action to not register.
Of course, opt-ins would be ignored, which tells you how sleazy this whole business really is.
Cookie Opt-Outs Annoying
I find the current use of pop-up cookie notices similarly offensive.
These force you to take action NOT to be probed and followed by their multitude of tracking cookies and web beacons.
This is one of the many issues with the new surveillance economy.
Data is being collected, processed and sold, all without direct permission from those affected.
This is a shady practice, the equivalent of sending products to you without your consent then billing you for them (illegal because the assumption that you could send the products back is inadequate).
Most North American jurisdictions give protection to the consumer — usually in the form of being able to keep the unordered merchandise without making any payment as well as a “cooling off” period for door-to-door sales.
Why should an electronic version be any different?
Never purchase a list of email addresses from anyone. Rather than bring you success, this is likely to get you listed as someone with questionable business ethics.
Marketers usually forge the sender's email address (rather than using their own) when making their unsolicited sales pitch. Does that sound ethical to you?
Spammers are Cowards
Spammers only want to deal with the gullible respondents that click on the links in the spam email.
The collateral damage (angry responses to spam emails) is left to the owners of stolen email addresses.
Is that the reputation you want your organization to have?
Hiding Behind False Links
Spammers and scammers often mask the actual destination of clickable links within their messages by making it appear to go to a legitimate address, when in fact it goes to a redirected address.
How Can You Tell?
When hovering over the links in a message, look in the status bar to see the actual destination of the link.
It is easy to mask the actual destination so that a link that appears to be "from your bank" takes you somewhere else.
Even so, I strongly urge you NOT to follow these links. Remember, these sites are built to steal from you: your passwords, your identity and your hard-earned money.
Facebook Obfuscates External Links
Facebook makes a practice of obfuscating the actual destination of advertising links on their site.
Facebook responded to the Cambridge Analytica misuse of user data by delaying and deflecting until the issue cooled down.
Facebook doesn't act ethically and you cannot trust anything they say. Just look at the statements former insiders made to Congress.
Beware of Phishing & Identity Theft
Legitimate companies don't warn you by email that your account is suspended.
Such messages are an attempt to gain access to your account by requesting your user name and password under false pretenses. The threat of account suspension is designed to get you to panic and ignore common sense.
- The use of companies you trust is designed to capitalize on trust in that name.
- While you're entering your login information into the fake site, the thief is logging into your real account.
- Recovery is long and often expensive.
Phishing and Spear Phishing
A more precise form of identity theft called spear phishing uses your name and often mentions specifics personal to you. Don't be fooled by this attempt to personalize spam.
The spammer has simply looked at what you've posted on social media, blogs and similar sites to personalize the email. They are not your friend.
Don't Follow Links
Never follow a link contained in such an email. Your safest option is to delete the message.
If you must contact the company concerned, type an address you've obtained from a reliable source (a recent invoice or account statement) into the location bar of your browser or contact the company directly by phone (again acquired from a reputable source).
Resources to Help with Spam
- Network Abuse Clearinghouse has content aimed at users, managers and developers as well as a resource section.
- CAUSE spam reporting centres.
- SpamCop reporting centres.
- Canada's anti-spam legislation.
- US FTC's consumer information on spam.
Copyright — Who Owns the Content?
Freely Available but Not Free
The Internet has become a huge repository of information and it is important to understand that much of that information is freely available, but is NOT free.
Do not assume that because you acquired a work for free, it is in the public domain.
— Stanford University Libraries
My favorite way of explaining the concept of intellectual property to the illiterate tribesmen I encounter daily isOkay, imagine that all the sheet music in the world burned up in a huge bonfire, and then imagine that they threw on all the CDs. You can still hum the music, right? The music still exists, right? Well, that thing you can't touch, or buy, or break…that is what we own.— Why you can't use music on your web site
Copyright is Automatic
Copyright is the legal term used to convey ownership. In Canada, copyright is automatically awarded to your body of creative work at the time of creation.
Don't be suckered into paying an organization to register your work (a common practice by vanity presses and unethical print-on-demand companies).
Protect Your Creative Work
If you are creating works you might want to belong to a creator's organization like the Canadian Authors Association to learn more about copyright and other important issues.
Copyright and the Internet
The Internet, just like other mediums, depends upon copyright protection to ensure that content is safe. No matter how noble the intention, the Internet should never be separated from other jurisdictions in terms of copyright protection.
Michael Geist's podcast episode 92 has a great discussion about copyright and Canadian journalism with his guest, Senator Paula Simons, a former journalist.
The Education System is NOT Exempt
The education system tends to be among the worst offenders when it comes to abusing copyright. Lawyers are apparently also big offenders.
Special interest groups have proposed that we should exempt the education system from having to respect copyright, particularly when it comes to information on the Internet.
These practices have led to a reluctance for authors to produce textbooks, especially those aimed at Canadian children.
Why Only Creators?
If children's education is grounds for exempting copyright protection, why not exempt teachers and janitors from being paid? There is a reason that teachers and janitors belong to unions.
According to education systems, creators are supposed to sell their books and articles to other parties, while providing them to schools for free.
Freely Available, Not Free
Theoretically ideas (and electronic content) can be sold without reducing the value of what's left, but that isn't true.
While it is often argued that the consumption of works of authorship doesn't diminish the remaining supply, that doesn't hold water when examined.
Would you pay for groceries at your favourite store if they were provided for free next door?
You'd be reluctant to pay anything even though the consumption of groceries in the free store wouldn't affect the stock in the original store.
Try telling the farmer he can just grow more or the clerk she can always work longer hours.
Copyright is Ownership
Copyright in its simplest terms is ownership.
All text and images you find on the Internet were created by someone. Copyright is retained by the creator unless there are express indications that either the text or the images or both are public domain.
You need to assume that copyright exists unless you see explicit indications that it is not.
Verify Creative Commons Licenses
If you wish to share your own content, using a system such as Creative Commons, that is your prerogative and potentially provides a valuable asset to the community.
However, before you include other people's content on your site, be sure of their willingness to share that information.
- Unless permission is clearly indicated, assume that you do NOT have permission.
- Verify that you meet the criteria specified in any Creative Commons licence present.
- Search to determine if that the information was copied illegally from elsewhere.
Unowned Content Can't Be Given Away
If a site contains other people's content, they have no right to give it away. You'll need to obtain permission from the original owner(s) to use it.
That said, there are sites like Pexels and Unsplash where registered users provide access to their works without payment or attribution (although providing credit to the photographer and site are always appreciated).
If a search for the text or image shows up on a copyrighted site, don't use the content without meeting the original creator's guidelines for use. I most cases you'll need express written permission.
Copyright law can be complex. If you are unsure, consult a lawyer familiar with copyright and trademark law.
Unauthorized Use is Theft
If you haven't met the conditions for using something you obtained, even if you didn't pay for it, they you're stealing. This makes you a thief.
Imagine some stranger cashing your pay cheque without your permission.
That is how copyright violation feels to the person whose copyrighted information is used without permission or payment.
Balancing the Rights of Owners with the Public Good
There is the need to balance the rights of copyright holders with the public good.
Corporate Copyright Needs a Sunset Law
Eventually, the copyrighted material is placed into the public domain so that all can enjoy it. The time this takes varies by country.
In fairness, copyright law should NOT give companies like Disney a perpetual licence while an individual creator's rights disappear at a specified time after death, denying their estate the same benefits as corporate shareholders.
A sunset law releasing corporate copyright holdings (much like patents on pharmaceuticals) would level the playing field. More content would be released into the public domain and encourage companies to continue their creative efforts.
There are also copyright abuses that break the spirit, if not the letter, of copyright law.
A copyright troll is a party (person or company) that enforces copyrights it owns for purposes of making money through litigation, in a manner considered unduly aggressive or opportunistic, generally without producing or licensing the works it owns for paid distribution.
The rights of those holding legitimate copyright is damaged by copyright trolls (such as Prenda Law) who exploit the system, often illegally:
Copyright is a broken system, biased in favor of copyright owners at the public's expense, prone to harsh punishment and ruinous damages, steeped in the misleading and unhelpful rhetoric of "theft" and "piracy." A system so out of balance is a natural haven for lawsuit abuse.
The public good must be balanced with the value of the effort placed in creating intellectual property, much like patent law.
Patents for NEW Ideas Only
Patents were meant to provide protection for the inventor then to release that new technology into the open market.
There needs to be some accountability by patent offices in what they allow to be patented is truly new and not simply an attempt to lock up an existing practice for financial benefit.
Sending out threatening notices with cash settlements that are delivered anonymously by ISPs are hard to prove in court, yet many settle in fear of being exposed, especially if the content is porn or a similarly embarrassing content (often implied even if untrue).
[S]tatutory damages are also wielded as a club by entertainment, media, software, and technology companies. They can destroy competitors and dry up investment with mere threats of litigation, giving them veto power over new technologies and emerging artists.
Learn more about copyright trolls and the frauds they perpetrate:
Obtaining More Information
These sites will give you a greater understanding of the issues and implications of copyright:
- EFF to USTR: IP doesn't belong in NAFTA. For the rest, talk to us..
- TPP's copyright term extension isn't made for artists — it's made by and for big content companies.
- Understanding Copyright and Related Rights (2016 WIPO publication).
- Teaching Copyright, EFF's curriculum was created to help [U.S.] teachers present the laws surrounding digital rights in a balanced way.
- 10 big myths about copyright explained.
- Copyright for the webmaster by Matt Mickiewicz.
- Plagiarism Today discusses the issues of plagiarism, content theft and copyright issues.
- Copyright 101: The 10 things to know about using imagery.